- Nutrients reduce chances for and symptoms of type 2 diabetes
- Vitamin D helps avoid condition
A new review of three clinical trials reveals supplementing with vitamin D reduces chances for developing type 2 diabetes in those with pre-diabetes. The studies covered 4,190 participants who took a placebo or either 20,000 IU of vitamin D weekly; 4,000 IU of vitamin D daily; or a synthetic vitamin D analog, eldecalcitol, at 0.75 mcg per day.
Compared to placebo, chances for diabetes decreased an average of 15 percent, for all of the vitamin D groups. Over three years of follow-up, those who maintained vitamin D levels of at least 50 nanograms per milliliter of blood (ng/mL) were 76 percent less likely to develop diabetes compared to those whose vitamin D levels were 20 to 29 ng/mL.
Vitamin D also increased chances of returning to normal glucose levels by 30 percent, which doctors said protected those with pre-diabetes from circulatory complications.
- Leucine preserves muscle
Getting enough protein at each main meal helps preserve muscle mass in aging, with the amino acid leucine in particular a powerful muscle builder. In this study, 138 men and women with type 2 diabetes, aged at least 65, reported the breakfast, lunch, and dinner they had eaten 24 hours before, on three separate occasions. None reached the recommended protein levels at breakfast, 59 percent did at lunch, and 32 percent did at dinner.
Doctors said older adults should consume 25 to 30 grams of protein at main meals, including at least 2,500 to 2,800 mg of leucine at each one. No participants got sufficient leucine at breakfast, 29 percent did at lunch, and 13 percent did at dinner.
Even healthy adults see muscle mass decline with age, with chances increasing for those with type 2 diabetes. Studies consistently show protein directly influences muscle mass, strength, and function. This is the first study to measure protein at all three main daily meals.
REFERENCE: ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE; 2023, VOL. 176, NO. 3, 355-63