Apples Reduce Inflammation
One of the factors in obesity is chronic inflammation, which can lead to heart and circulatory problems. In this study, doctors asked 44 participants, average age 45, average body mass index score 33.4, to either add to their regular diets three whole Gala apples per day, or to avoid apples altogether. Participants also avoided polyphenol-rich foods for two weeks prior to the study.
After six weeks, compared to the non-apple group, those eating apples saw inflammatory factors decline, including C-reactive protein -12 percent; interleukin-6 -12.4 percent; and LPS-binding protein -20.7 percent. Antioxidant capacity also increased by 9.6 percent.
Reference: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 2021, Vol. 114, No. 2, 752–63
Fish for Inflammation
Eating fish reduced inflammation and chances for heart and circulatory problems. Doctors are beginning to focus on short-term vs. long-term inflammation. In short-term inflammation due to infection, the immune system releases lymphocytes and neutrophils to attack the invading pathogen. But in long-term, non-infectious inflammation, neutrophil levels remain elevated, leading doctors to measure the ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes, called the NLR.
In this one-year study of 8,237 healthy participants, those who ate multiple servings of fish weekly had lower neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, lower long-term, non-infectious inflammation, and were less likely to develop heart or circulatory disease.
Reference: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism; 2021, No. 77, 146-53
Symptoms in urinary tract infections (UTI) and in non-infectious bladder disorders include painful, frequent urination. In this study, 65 adults reporting recurring symptoms within the past year took 150 mg of Pycnogenol® or 400 mg of cranberry extract per day.
After two months, the number of urinary symptoms decreased 62 percent for Pycnogenol vs. 45 percent for cranberry. The entire Pycnogenol group was infection free, compared to 35 percent for cranberry, and to 45 percent at the start of the study. Most (91 percent) taking Pycnogenol were symptom free vs. 80 percent for cranberry. Oxidative stress also decreased in the Pycnogenol group.
Reference: Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine; 2021, Vol. 2021, Article ID 9976299